What is Sheep Farming? Complete Guide

When it comes to the world of agriculture, sheep farming holds a significant position. Whether you’re envisioning rolling green pastures or fluffy clouds of wool, sheep farming is an age-old practice that continues to play a vital role in our society. But what exactly is sheep farming? In this complete guide, we will delve into the intricacies of this agricultural pursuit, exploring its origins, benefits, practices, and future prospects.

Sheep farming can be defined as the rearing and breeding of sheep for various purposes, including wool production, meat supply, and even for conservation and land management purposes. Sheep have been domesticated for thousands of years, making them one of the earliest animals to be tamed by humans. This long-standing relationship between humans and sheep has shaped our history, influenced our cultures, and provided us with valuable resources.

The importance of sheep farming cannot be overstated. Historically, sheep farming played a crucial role in the development of civilizations. The ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans all relied on sheep for their wool and meat. The wool industry, in particular, became a cornerstone of economic prosperity for many regions. Today, while advancements in technology and modern farming practices have emerged, the significance of sheep farming persists, albeit in a more evolved and specialized form.

In this guide, we will explore the multifaceted benefits of sheep farming. From the versatile uses of wool in various industries to the nutritional value of sheep meat, there are numerous advantages to engaging in this agricultural enterprise. Moreover, we will delve into the environmental benefits of sheep farming, including its role in maintaining biodiversity, managing landscapes, and promoting sustainable agricultural practices.

If you’re considering embarking on a sheep farming venture, this guide will provide you with essential knowledge to get started. We will discuss the process of choosing the right sheep breed for your farm, setting up the necessary infrastructure, managing the flock, and meeting their nutritional needs. Additionally, we will explore breeding and reproduction techniques, health care and disease prevention, shearing and wool management, as well as effective pasture and grazing management practices.

Marketing and selling sheep products is another crucial aspect of sheep farming, and we will guide you through identifying target markets, developing marketing strategies, ensuring product quality, and exploring avenues for direct sales or collaborations with local businesses. We will also address the common challenges faced by sheep farmers, such as predator control, disease management, climate resilience, and financial stability, offering potential solutions to overcome these hurdles.

Looking ahead, we will delve into the future of sheep farming. Technological advancements continue to shape the industry, offering new opportunities for efficiency, productivity, and animal welfare. We will also explore sustainable and organic sheep farming practices that align with the growing demand for environmentally friendly and ethically produced products. Furthermore, we will discuss emerging market trends and the role of sheep farming in addressing global food security and contributing to rural development.

By the end of this comprehensive guide, you will have gained a deep understanding of sheep farming, its historical significance, its current practices, and its promising future. Whether you’re a passionate farmer, an aspiring entrepreneur, or simply someone intrigued by the world of agriculture, this guide will equip you with valuable insights into the captivating realm of sheep farming. So, let’s embark on this journey together and unravel the wonders of sheep farming.

History of Sheep Farming

Sheep farming traces its roots back to ancient times, when humans first recognized the potential benefits of domesticating wild sheep. It is believed that the process of sheep domestication began around 10,000 years ago in the fertile crescent of the Middle East. Early human civilizations, such as the Sumerians and the Babylonians, depended on sheep for their survival.

The wild ancestor of today’s domestic sheep is the mouflon, a species native to the mountainous regions of Southwest Asia. These wild sheep exhibited traits that made them suitable for domestication, such as herding behavior, adaptability to various habitats, and the ability to convert grass and other vegetation into valuable resources.

As humans began to tame and selectively breed sheep, they developed different breeds to suit their specific needs. Over time, sheep farming spread from its epicenter in the Middle East to other parts of the world, including Europe, Asia, and Africa. Each region developed its own unique sheep breeds, adapted to local environmental conditions and cultural preferences.

Spread of sheep farming across different regions and cultures

Sheep farming played a significant role in the development of ancient civilizations around the world. In Europe, the Romans greatly valued sheep for their wool, and they played a pivotal role in expanding sheep farming across their vast empire. They introduced improved breeding techniques and established large-scale wool production, which became a crucial economic activity.

In medieval Europe, sheep farming continued to flourish. The English wool trade became a driving force behind the country’s economy, leading to the establishment of large sheep farms known as “sheepwalks.” These sheepwalks often covered extensive areas of land and required skilled shepherds to manage the flocks.

In other parts of the world, sheep farming also thrived. In Asia, the nomadic cultures of the Central Asian steppes relied heavily on sheep for their livelihoods, utilizing them for milk, meat, and wool. The introduction of merino sheep from Spain to Australia and New Zealand during the 18th and 19th centuries played a crucial role in shaping the sheep farming industries in these countries.

Role of sheep farming in ancient civilizations

Sheep farming held immense cultural, economic, and symbolic significance in ancient civilizations. The ancient Egyptians considered sheep sacred and associated them with deities such as Osiris. They believed that sheep possessed a spiritual connection with the afterlife, leading to their use in religious rituals and sacrifices.

In ancient Greece, sheep farming played a vital role in the agricultural economy. The Greeks recognized the value of sheep’s wool, using it to produce textiles and clothing. The epic poem “The Odyssey” by Homer mentions the importance of sheep farming and its connection to Greek society.

Similarly, in ancient Rome, sheep farming played a central role in the agricultural landscape. The Romans developed large-scale sheep farming operations, known as “latifundia,” which contributed to the growth of their empire and the expansion of trade. Roman wool was highly sought after, and it became a symbol of status and luxury.

Benefits of Sheep Farming

Wool production and its applications

One of the primary benefits of sheep farming is the production of wool, a versatile and valuable natural fiber. Sheep’s wool has been used by humans for centuries to create clothing, blankets, carpets, and a wide range of textiles. The unique properties of wool, such as its insulation capabilities, moisture-wicking ability, and flame resistance, make it highly desirable in various industries.

Sheep farmers can capitalize on the demand for wool by shearing their flock annually. This process not only provides income but also promotes the health and well-being of the sheep by preventing overheating and ensuring proper hygiene. The wool industry offers a range of opportunities, from selling raw wool to specialized wool markets, participating in wool cooperatives, or even establishing direct-to-consumer sales of wool products.

Meat production and nutritional value

Another significant benefit of sheep farming is the production of high-quality meat. Sheep meat, commonly known as lamb or mutton depending on the age of the animal, is a nutritious and flavorful protein source. It is rich in essential amino acids, vitamins, and minerals, making it an important part of a balanced diet.

Sheep farming allows farmers to raise lambs for meat production, providing a sustainable source of lean, tender, and flavorful meat. The demand for lamb meat continues to grow due to its unique taste and culinary versatility. Sheep farmers can tap into this market by offering locally raised, ethically produced lamb to consumers who value quality and sustainable food choices.

Environmental advantages of sheep farming

Sheep farming also offers environmental benefits that contribute to sustainable agricultural practices. Sheep are considered “ecosystem engineers” as they play a crucial role in managing landscapes and promoting biodiversity. Their grazing behavior helps control vegetation growth, reducing the risk of wildfires and enhancing the health of grasslands and pastures.

Furthermore, sheep can graze on marginal lands that are unsuitable for other types of agricultural activities. By utilizing these lands, sheep farmers contribute to land conservation and reduce soil erosion. Sheep farming systems that prioritize sustainable grazing practices and rotational grazing techniques can enhance soil health, carbon sequestration, and overall ecosystem resilience.

Economic significance for farmers and rural communities

Sheep farming has significant economic implications for farmers and rural communities. For farmers, sheep farming can provide a diversified income stream. The sale of wool, meat, and other sheep-related products can contribute to the financial stability of the farm. Moreover, sheep farming often requires fewer resources and infrastructure compared to other livestock sectors, making it accessible to small-scale farmers.

In rural communities, sheep farming can stimulate local economies. It creates job opportunities for shepherds, shearers, and other support personnel involved in the sheep industry. Additionally, the sale of sheep-related products, such as wool garments or specialty lamb dishes, can attract tourism and bolster local businesses, including wool mills, butchers, and restaurants.

Getting Started with Sheep Farming

Getting started with sheep farming begins with selecting the appropriate sheep breed for your specific farming goals and the environmental conditions of your region. There are numerous sheep breeds available, each with distinct characteristics and suitability for different purposes.

Consider factors such as wool quality, meat production, adaptability to local climates, and disease resistance when choosing a breed. For example, if you aim to focus on wool production, breeds like Merino or Rambouillet are known for their fine and high-quality wool. On the other hand, if you prioritize meat production, breeds like Suffolk or Dorper may be more suitable.

Research local breeders, consult with experienced farmers, and attend agricultural fairs or exhibitions to learn more about different sheep breeds and their specific traits. Assessing your farming objectives, available resources, and market demands will help you make an informed decision when selecting the right breed for your farm.

Setting up the farm infrastructure

Creating suitable infrastructure is crucial for successful sheep farming. Start by assessing the size and layout of your farm. Adequate fencing is essential to secure your flock and protect them from predators. Install sturdy, predator-resistant fencing that meets the specific needs of your area.

Constructing sheep shelters, commonly known as sheds or barns, is necessary to provide protection from extreme weather conditions and ensure the well-being of your sheep. These structures should be well-ventilated, spacious, and designed to allow for easy cleaning and maintenance. Adequate space should be allocated for feeding and watering areas as well.

Water supply is vital for sheep farming. Ensure there is a reliable source of clean, fresh water accessible to your flock at all times. Install troughs or automatic watering systems that are suitable for the number of sheep you intend to keep.

Procuring and managing the flock

Once you have the necessary infrastructure in place, it’s time to acquire your flock. Start by identifying reputable and experienced sheep breeders or sellers. Purchase healthy, well-bred sheep that align with your chosen breed and farming goals.

Managing your flock requires attention to several key aspects. Develop a flock management plan that includes routine health checks, vaccination schedules, and regular monitoring for signs of illness or distress. Establish a relationship with a local veterinarian who specializes in sheep health to ensure proper care and prompt treatment, if needed.

Sheep nutrition is another critical aspect of flock management. Consult with a livestock nutritionist or an agricultural extension service to develop a balanced feeding program suitable for your flock’s nutritional needs. This program should consider factors such as the age, breed, and reproductive status of your sheep, as well as the available pasture and forage options.

Nutrition and feeding requirements

Sheep have specific dietary requirements, and providing them with a well-balanced diet is essential for their health and productivity. The diet of sheep typically consists of grazing on pasture, supplemented with hay, silage, and potentially grain or specialized sheep feeds.

Ensure that your pastures are properly managed, regularly rotated, and free from toxic plants. Adequate pasture size, quality, and accessibility are crucial for supporting a healthy flock. Consult with local agricultural experts to determine the carrying capacity of your pastures, which refers to the number of sheep your land can sustainably support.

During periods of limited grazing or low-quality forage availability, such as winter months, provide supplementary feed to meet your flock’s nutritional requirements. This can include hay, silage, or commercially formulated sheep feeds. Keep in mind that the nutritional needs of sheep vary depending on factors such as age, reproductive status, and environmental conditions.

Sheep Farming Practices

Breeding and reproduction techniques

Breeding and reproduction are essential aspects of sheep farming. To maintain and improve the quality of your flock, you’ll need to implement effective breeding strategies. This involves selecting suitable rams and ewes based on desired traits such as wool quality, meat production, or specific genetic characteristics.

Consider using methods such as natural mating or artificial insemination (AI) to achieve successful breeding. AI allows you to introduce desirable genetics from renowned rams without the need for physical contact between the ram and ewe. It also enables you to widen the gene pool by accessing rams from different geographical areas.

Implement a breeding calendar or schedule to optimize reproductive efficiency. Monitor the ewes’ estrus cycles, or “heat” periods, to determine the ideal time for breeding. Keep detailed records of breeding dates, ram performance, and lambing outcomes to track the success of your breeding program and make informed decisions for future breeding seasons.

Health care and disease prevention

Maintaining the health of your flock is crucial for their overall well-being and productivity. Establish a comprehensive health care program with the guidance of a veterinarian experienced in sheep health.

Vaccinations are an essential component of disease prevention. Consult with your vet to determine the appropriate vaccines for your region, which may include protection against common diseases such as clostridial diseases, foot rot, or respiratory infections. Develop a vaccination schedule and ensure regular updates to maintain herd immunity.

Parasite control is another critical aspect of sheep health management. Internal and external parasites, such as worms and external pests like ticks or lice, can significantly impact flock health and productivity. Implement a strategic deworming program using anthelmintics, rotate pastures to reduce parasite burden, and practice good hygiene in housing and handling areas.

Regular monitoring and observation are essential to detect early signs of illness or distress. Develop a keen eye for symptoms of common sheep diseases, such as respiratory infections, mastitis, or metabolic disorders. Promptly isolate and treat affected individuals to prevent the spread of diseases within the flock.

Shearing and wool management

Shearing is a critical practice in sheep farming, primarily for wool-producing breeds. Shearing removes the fleece, maintaining the health and hygiene of the sheep while providing a valuable resource. Hire professional shearers or learn the skill yourself to ensure proper shearing techniques and minimize stress for the sheep.

Establish a wool management system to effectively handle and market your wool. Properly skirt, sort, and package the fleeces to maximize their value. Consider options for selling raw wool to wool brokers, wool mills, or direct-to-consumer markets. Additionally, explore value-added opportunities, such as wool processing or creating niche wool products, to enhance the profitability of your wool enterprise.

Managing pasture and grazing patterns

Optimal pasture management is vital for maintaining a healthy and productive flock. Practice rotational grazing, where sheep are moved between different pastures or paddocks. This allows for better utilization of forage, prevents overgrazing, and promotes the regrowth of pasture plants.

Monitor pasture growth and quality regularly to ensure adequate nutrition for your flock. Consider soil testing to determine nutrient levels and adjust fertilization practices accordingly. Collaborate with local agricultural extension services to develop a pasture management plan tailored to your specific location and environmental conditions.

Water management is also crucial for pasture-based sheep farming. Ensure adequate water supply in each grazing area to meet the needs of your flock. Install watering systems or tanks strategically throughout your pasture rotation system to ensure sheep have access to clean and fresh water at all times.

Marketing and Selling Sheep Products

Identifying target markets for wool and meat

To effectively market and sell sheep products, it’s essential to identify your target markets. For wool, research local and regional wool markets, wool brokers, and textile manufacturers who may be interested in purchasing your raw wool. Additionally, explore direct-to-consumer options by targeting fiber enthusiasts, crafters, and artisans who value locally sourced, high-quality wool.

For meat, consider the preferences and demands of your local community and potential customers. Research local restaurants, specialty butchers, and farmers’ markets that prioritize locally sourced and sustainable meat products. Explore opportunities to collaborate with chefs or participate in farm-to-table initiatives to showcase the unique taste and quality of your lamb or mutton.

Developing marketing strategies

Developing effective marketing strategies can help promote your sheep products and attract customers. Build a brand identity for your farm by highlighting your unique selling points, such as sustainable farming practices, animal welfare standards, or the heritage of your sheep breed. Craft a compelling story that connects consumers with the value and quality of your products.

Utilize online platforms to showcase your products and engage with potential customers. Create a professional website or online store where customers can learn about your farm, browse available products, and make purchases. Leverage social media platforms to share updates, behind-the-scenes glimpses, and engage with your audience through photos, videos, and stories.

Consider participating in local farmers’ markets, agricultural fairs, or wool festivals to directly connect with customers and build relationships. Networking with other farmers, artisans, or local businesses can also open doors for collaborations or joint marketing initiatives, allowing you to reach a wider audience.

Certification and quality control

Certifications and quality control measures can enhance the credibility and marketability of your sheep products. Explore certifications such as organic, grass-fed, or animal welfare labels, depending on your farming practices. Certification programs provide assurance to consumers that your products meet specific standards, which can help differentiate your products in the market.

Implement quality control measures throughout your production process to ensure consistency and excellence in your sheep products. This includes maintaining hygiene standards, following best practices in wool processing or meat handling, and conducting regular quality checks to meet customer expectations.

Direct sales and partnerships with local businesses

Consider direct sales channels to establish a closer connection with your customers and capture a larger portion of the product’s value. Direct sales can include selling wool products, lamb cuts, or value-added items like wool blankets, yarn, or lamb sausages directly from your farm or through online platforms.

Additionally, explore partnerships with local businesses such as restaurants, grocery stores, or specialty shops. Collaborate with chefs to showcase your lamb on their menus or supply them with regular shipments of high-quality cuts. Forge relationships with fiber shops or boutiques that may be interested in featuring your wool products.

Building strong relationships with your customers and partners is crucial for long-term success. Offer exceptional customer service, respond to inquiries promptly, and seek feedback to continuously improve your products and services. Foster a sense of community by hosting farm events, workshops, or farm tours, allowing customers to experience the farm-to-table or farm-to-fiber journey firsthand.

Challenges and Solutions in Sheep Farming

Predators and predator control methods

One of the significant challenges in sheep farming is dealing with predators that pose a threat to the flock, such as wolves, coyotes, or foxes. These predators can cause stress, injury, and loss of sheep, impacting the overall profitability of the farm.

Implementing effective predator control methods is crucial for protecting the flock. This can include physical deterrents like secure fencing, electrified fencing, or the use of guardian animals such as dogs or llamas to ward off predators. Additionally, employing non-lethal methods like noise makers, motion-activated lights, or scent-based repellents can help discourage predators from approaching the flock.

Collaborating with local predator control agencies or participating in community-based predator management programs can provide additional support and resources for dealing with predator challenges specific to your region.

Disease management and biosecurity measures

Disease management is a constant concern in sheep farming. Infectious diseases such as foot rot, internal parasites, or respiratory infections can significantly impact the health and productivity of your flock.

Implementing rigorous biosecurity measures can help reduce the risk of disease introduction and transmission. This includes quarantine procedures for newly acquired sheep, proper sanitation practices, and regular vaccination and deworming protocols. Maintaining a clean and well-maintained farm environment, including housing and feeding areas, can also minimize disease spread.

Regular health checks, monitoring for signs of illness, and prompt veterinary intervention are crucial in maintaining flock health. Develop a good working relationship with a veterinarian who specializes in sheep health and seek their guidance in developing an effective disease management plan for your farm.

Climate and weather-related challenges

Sheep farming is susceptible to climate and weather-related challenges that can impact both the flock and the farm’s infrastructure. Extreme temperatures, heavy rain, storms, or drought can pose significant risks to sheep health and welfare.

To mitigate these challenges, ensure that your farm infrastructure provides appropriate shelter and ventilation to protect the flock from extreme weather conditions. Consider installing windbreaks, shade structures, or additional housing options to offer protection during harsh weather.

During periods of drought or limited grazing, have a plan in place for providing supplementary feed or accessing alternative sources of forage. Proper pasture and grazing management practices, such as rotational grazing and pasture reseeding, can also help build resilience and ensure a consistent food supply for the flock.

Monitoring weather forecasts, maintaining emergency preparedness plans, and having contingency measures in place are vital for effectively managing climate and weather-related challenges.

Financial and market volatility

Sheep farming, like any agricultural enterprise, is subject to financial and market volatility. Fluctuating feed costs, unpredictable market prices for wool or meat, or changing consumer preferences can all impact the financial stability of a sheep farm.

To navigate financial challenges, develop a comprehensive business plan that includes realistic financial projections and risk management strategies. Diversify your income sources by exploring value-added opportunities, such as wool products or agritourism activities like farm visits or educational workshops.

Staying informed about market trends and consumer demands can help you adapt and identify niche market opportunities. Building strong relationships with local businesses, direct customers, or joining cooperatives can provide stability and open doors for collaborative marketing initiatives.

Seek advice from agricultural extension services, industry associations, or experienced farmers who can provide insights and guidance on financial management and market strategies. Continuously evaluate and adjust your business plan to align with changing market conditions and industry trends.

Future of Sheep Farming

Technological advancements in sheep farming

The future of sheep farming is intertwined with technological advancements that have the potential to revolutionize the industry. Emerging technologies such as precision farming, automation, and data analytics offer exciting possibilities for increased efficiency, productivity, and animal welfare.

Precision farming techniques enable farmers to optimize resource management, including precise application of fertilizers, targeted irrigation systems, and GPS-guided equipment. This technology allows for better utilization of land, reduced environmental impact, and improved productivity.

Automation is another area where advancements are reshaping sheep farming. Robotic systems for feeding, milking, and shearing can enhance operational efficiency and reduce labor requirements. Automated health monitoring and data collection devices can provide real-time insights into the health and well-being of individual sheep, facilitating early disease detection and intervention.

Data analytics and digital tools are transforming decision-making processes in sheep farming. Farm management software, remote sensing technologies, and predictive modeling can provide valuable insights into herd performance, pasture growth, and market trends. This data-driven approach empowers farmers to make informed decisions, optimize resource allocation, and adapt to changing market conditions.

Sustainable and organic sheep farming practices

As sustainability and environmental consciousness become increasingly important, the future of sheep farming will see a rise in sustainable and organic practices. Consumers are seeking products produced with minimal environmental impact, animal welfare considerations, and transparency in production methods.

Implementing sustainable grazing practices, such as rotational grazing and regenerative agriculture techniques, can enhance soil health, carbon sequestration, and biodiversity. By promoting a healthy ecosystem, sheep farming can play a significant role in sustainable land management and contribute to mitigating climate change.

Organic sheep farming practices align with the growing demand for organic products. These practices involve minimizing the use of synthetic chemicals, antibiotics, and genetically modified organisms. Organic certification ensures adherence to strict standards, providing consumers with confidence in the organic integrity of the products.

Investing in sustainable infrastructure, renewable energy systems, and waste management solutions are further steps toward a sustainable future for sheep farming. Innovative approaches such as composting manure, utilizing renewable energy sources, and implementing water conservation practices contribute to reducing the environmental footprint of the farm.

Market trends and opportunities

Market trends and evolving consumer preferences present opportunities for the future of sheep farming. Increased interest in locally sourced and ethically produced products, including wool and meat, creates a favorable environment for small-scale sheep farmers.

The demand for specialty and niche products offers opportunities for value-added sheep products. This can include organic or ethically produced wool, unique wool blends, specialty meat cuts, or artisanal sheep’s milk products. Identifying and targeting niche markets that appreciate the quality, story, and traceability of your products can provide a competitive advantage.

E-commerce platforms and direct-to-consumer marketing continue to grow, enabling farmers to reach a broader customer base. Establishing an online presence, leveraging social media platforms, and utilizing online marketplaces provide opportunities to connect directly with consumers, share the farm’s story, and build customer relationships.

Role of sheep farming in food security and rural development

Sheep farming will continue to play a vital role in global food security and rural development. Sheep are versatile livestock that can thrive in various climates and landscapes, making them important assets in regions with limited agricultural resources.

Sheep farming contributes to sustainable agricultural systems by utilizing marginal lands, converting forage into valuable products, and enhancing biodiversity. By fostering rural employment opportunities and supporting local economies, sheep farming contributes to the social and economic well-being of rural communities.


Sheep farming, with its rich history and multitude of benefits, remains an integral part of agriculture. From the early domestication of wild sheep to the modern practices of wool production, meat supply, and land management, sheep farming has evolved alongside human civilization.

In this complete guide, we explored the various aspects of sheep farming, from understanding its origins and historical significance to recognizing its current challenges and future prospects. We delved into the benefits of sheep farming, including the production of valuable wool, nutritious meat, and the environmental advantages it offers.

Getting started with sheep farming involves careful breed selection, establishment of farm infrastructure, and diligent flock management. By implementing effective breeding techniques, practicing proper health care and disease prevention measures, managing shearing and wool processing, and optimizing pasture and grazing patterns, farmers can ensure the health and productivity of their flock.

Marketing and selling sheep products require identifying target markets, developing effective marketing strategies, ensuring certification and quality control, and exploring direct sales or partnerships with local businesses. By connecting with consumers, sharing the story of your farm, and delivering high-quality products, you can establish a successful presence in the market.

While sheep farming presents its own set of challenges, such as predator control, disease management, climate resilience, and financial volatility, proactive measures, collaboration, and seeking expert guidance can help overcome these obstacles.

Looking ahead, the future of sheep farming holds promise. Technological advancements, including precision farming, automation, and data analytics, will continue to enhance efficiency, productivity, and animal welfare. Sustainable and organic practices will gain prominence, meeting the demands of environmentally conscious consumers.

Market trends and opportunities, along with the role of sheep farming in food security and rural development, further highlight the significance of this agricultural pursuit. Sheep farming not only provides valuable products but also contributes to the well-being of rural communities and the sustainability of agricultural systems.

As you embark on your sheep farming journey or expand your existing enterprise, remember the importance of continuous learning, adaptability, and innovation. Stay connected with industry experts, agricultural networks, and fellow farmers to exchange knowledge and experiences.

Sheep farming offers a rewarding and fulfilling experience. It allows you to engage with nature, promote sustainable practices, and provide nourishing products to consumers. Embrace the challenges, seize the opportunities, and nurture your passion for sheep farming as you contribute to this ancient tradition while shaping its future.

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