Basically, Pastoral farming is the process of raising livestock for food. It can be done in a number of different ways, including intensive, extensive and mixed systems.
Intensive vs extensive systems
Intensive and extensive systems in pastoral farming have their advantages and disadvantages. Intensive methods of production aim to maximise yield and minimize cost, while extensive farming uses land in a more organic manner. These systems respond to the natural climate and fertility of an area, which is a key factor in maintaining productivity.
Intensive methods of production typically use more inputs and chemicals to enhance yield. They are also more labour intensive than extensive methods. However, they also cause water pollution, which can affect the local ecosystem.
Extensive farming systems generally employ more land than intensive methods. These methods are often more common in lower-density areas. Extensive systems are also more likely to be practiced in cheaper land areas. Extensive systems use less feed as animals grow. In addition, they also tend to use more inputs, such as fertilizers and special seeds. In the Soviet period, livestock production in Kazakhstan was semi-industrialized, combining improvements in genetics, feeding and husbandry. In addition, intensive agricultural methods became increasingly common during the second half of the 20th century.
Intensive agriculture primarily uses agrochemicals, machinery and other inputs to enhance yields. It is also used to maximize the value of a pasture.
Extensive farming systems tend to be more flexible. For example, a small sedentary farmer can keep animals on village pastures year-round. However, larger mobile producers are less constrained. They can make use of off-village pastures in the summer.
Intensive agriculture also uses machinery to aid picking and planting. This is the most common method used to increase yield. It also uses a large amount of labor and agrochemicals. However, intensive farming methods are often associated with overproduction, which results in a lower market price. The cost of obtaining the required land and other inputs is also significant.
Extensive farming systems tend not to use agrochemicals or large amounts of labor. However, extensive systems are more dependent on pasture, as they use more land and require a large area to operate. Extensive systems also tend to be more mobile. Larger farms have outlying bases, which includes houses and barns. These bases are located in remote areas in the summer, while in the winter, they make use of pastures that are far from settlements.
During the past years, there has been an increasing interest in the use of mixed systems in pastoral farming. These systems involve various combinations of livestock and other animals such as yaks, reindeer and camels. These systems cannot be separated from cattle, though.
Mixed systems in pastoral farming are those that utilize a variety of rangeland biomes. These rangeland biomes are composed of trees, shrubs, herbs and grasses. These varying biomes are characterized by different levels of biological productivity. This means that the grazing period of these areas can vary from year to year. It is also important to note that rangeland biomes are affected by edaphic conditions such as precipitation and temperature.
The use of mixed systems in pastoral farming can be seen in many countries. However, it is difficult to determine the overall value of these systems. The value of the mixed system depends on a variety of factors such as rainfall, topography, altitude, exposure, and type of farming.
There are several benefits to using livestock for the livelihoods of pastoral communities. These benefits include a means to share risk with others, insurance, and credit benefits. The livestock also provides an essential element of the human diet. They also serve as a source of employment and income.
Mixed systems in pastoral farming can be classified into two broad categories: traditional and non-traditional. Traditional systems are characterized by centuries-old experiences and a propensity to adapt to new circumstances. They are also characterized by a low input/multiple output system. Nevertheless, traditional systems are not suitable for intensive production. In contrast, alternative pastoral production can be kept at a reasonable level.
Non-traditional systems include fishing, honey production, gum resin production, firewood production, and tourism. These systems are increasingly contributing to the livelihoods of pastoral communities. In addition, they also have ecological implications.
Transhumance is a type of seasonal pastures where flocks are moved from one place to another. These systems are often opportunistic and can be disrupted by climatic change or economic changes.
Transhumance is a valuable resource, but it is difficult to accurately measure its value. For instance, hail can damage crops and natural disasters can cause severe damage to crops. In addition, the expected returns of livestock farming can decline due to unforeseeable events.
Saami reindeer husbandry evolved independently
Traditionally, reindeer husbandry has been important to the Sami way of life. It is also a means of subsistence. It is a small industry on a national scale, but it is extremely important in employment and cultural terms.
In Norway, reindeer husbandry has been subject to changes over the years. These changes have affected the Sami way of life. It has also been subject to new regulations and administrative structures. These changes have led to a new economic system among reindeer herders.
Reindeer herding has a history that goes back to the last Ice Age. During that time, people followed reindeer to the north. However, after the last Ice Age, people began to use domesticated cows and goats as a supplement to the reindeer herds.
This transition took place in several places at once. In Sapmi, the Forest Sami began acquiring cows and goats before Mountain Sami. This led to a conflict with settled farmers over winter feed. These conflicts originally stemmed from ethnic conflicts, but they shifted to problems of opposing economic systems.
The development of Norway during the seventeenth century and eighteenth century resulted in a rapid increase in the size and scope of social and economic development in the North. New activities like ranching, farming, and major highways were introduced to the region. These developments have significantly altered the traditional Sami reindeer herding structures.
Today, reindeer herding faces significant challenges. These include land-use conflicts, environmental threats, and climate change. The most significant of these challenges is encroachment into the reindeer pastures. The reindeer herding industry is a small industry on a national level, but its importance is great in the Sami culture.
The Norwegian Sami reindeer herders are members of the Norske Reindriftssamers Landsforbund (NBR). The NBR is a voluntary association. Its highest decision-making body is the national congress. The association works for the unity of the Sami reindeer herders. It negotiates on their behalf with the state on a number of issues. It also negotiates economic support from the state on an annual basis.
The NBR works with the state to resolve social, professional, and organizational issues. The NBR also negotiates on economic issues.
Throughout history, hundreds of pastoral societies have inhabited the world. Each has its own culture and way of life. Some focus on livestock while others rely on crops. Pastoralism is a distinct form of food-producing economy. It is particularly prevalent in areas that receive low rainfall. However, the practice is also used by some communities in the least developed nations.
Nomadic pastoralism is a form of farming that relies on grazing animals. The practice is often found in semi-arid regions of North Africa and West Asia. In this region, the majority of people are involved in livestock farming. However, the Sahel region in North Africa is experiencing a string of severe droughts that are threatening to cause severe food insecurity.
Nomadic pastoralism and pastoral farming are both affected by the shrinking availability of pastures. As a result, cattle and sheep are becoming scarce in some areas. This is a result of overgrazing, which has been practiced in some regions where ecosystems are fragile. As a result, herds are being sent to nomadic shepherds in rangelands. This is done to protect the ancient tradition.
Nomadic pastoralism is characterized by the fact that it involves everyone in the production process. The practice is not limited to livestock, as some herders keep donkeys, yaks, and goats. Some herders use fire to transform forest into pasture.
The earliest pastoral societies were formed in Africa. However, they also arose in India and Asia. In the Middle East, some of the earliest pastoral societies were made up of people who travelled for long periods of time. These people herded goats, sheep, and horses. They were also known to have traded with farmers and settled populations.
Some of the early pastoral societies grew up around agrarian oasis cities. These communities grew out of the necessity to find a way to use the land. The earliest farming communities had to figure out what they could do with the land, and how they would best use it.
Eventually, a more settled economy grew up in some regions. However, these areas also experienced a number of natural disasters, including earthquakes, droughts, and floods. These disasters made it more difficult to grow crops, and forced early farming communities to find a different way to use the land.